Aerofax: Lockheed Martin F/A-22 Raptor, by Jay Miller, Midland Publishing 2005,
Advanced Tactical Fighter to F-22 Raptor: Origins of the 21st Century Air Dominance Fighter, by David C. Aronstein, Michael J. Hirschberg, & Albert C. Piccirillo, AIAA 1998
America's Stealth Fighters and Bombers: B-2, F-117, YF-22 and YF-23, by James C Goodall, Motorbooks International 1992,
F-22 Raptor, by Steve Pace, McGraw-Hill 1999, ISBN 0-07-134271-0
IPMS Color Cross-Reference Guide, by David Klaus, Klausguide No 1, 1993,
One of a Kind Research Aircraft: A History of Inflight Simulators, Testbeds, and Prototypes, by Steve Markman, PA Schiffer Publishing 1995,
The ATF Contenders: YF-22 & YF-23, Air Superiority into the 21st Century, by Andy Sun, Concord Publications 1991,
The Complete Book of Fighters, by William Green & Gordon Swanborough, Salamander 1997,
USAF Prototype Jet Fighters Photo Scrapbook, by Tony R Landis & Dennis R Jenkins, Specialty Press 2009,
X-Fighters: Experimental and Prototype USAF Jet Fighters, XP-59 to YF-23, by Steve Pace, Motorbooks International 1991,
YF-22 and YF-23 Advanced Tactical Fighters: Stealth, Speed and Agility for Air Superiority, by Bill Sweetman, Motorbooks International 1991,
Web of Secrecy: YF-23 Black Widow II, by West Coast Image Productions, 30 March 2005
YF-23 Black Widow II Declassified, by West Coast Image Productions, ICE Dist, Japanese version
Magazines and Journals
Aerospace Projects Review, Volume 3, Number 2, by Scott Lowther
Aircraft and Aerospace August 1990, 'YF-23 Debut'
Air International, February 1991, Vol 40 No 2, p65-70, 'ATF: The USAF's Future Fighter Programme', by Roy Braybrook
Air International, December 1994, Vol 47 No 6, p334-341, 'From ATF to Lightning II: A Bolt in Anger. Part 1: Design Options and the YF-23A', by David Baker
Air International, January 1995, 'From ATF to Lightning II: A Bolt in Anger. Part 2: Lockheed's YF-22A', by David Baker
Airpower, March 1991 Vol 21 No 2, p20-43, '21st Century Fly Off, ATF Showdown'
Australian Aviation, May 1991, 'YF-23', by Carlo Kopp
Aviation Week and Space Technology, 2 July 1990, p16-21, 'YF-23A Previews Design Features of Future Fighters'
Aviation Week and Space Technology, 9 July 1990, p54-55, 'Photos Show Key Features of YF-23A ATF'
Aviation Week and Space Technology, 16 July 1990, p22-23, 'Northrop ATF Prototype Performs First Taxi Test'
Aviation Week and Space Technology, 3 September 1990, p40-41, 'Northrop YF-23A ATF Prototype Completes First Two Test Flights'
Aviation Week and Space Technology, 17 September 1990, p44-50, 'ATF Prototypes Outstrip F-15 in Size and Thrust'
Aviation Week and Space Technology, 24 September 1990, p25, 'YF-23A Conducts Air Refueling Test, Reaches Supersonic Speed on Following Mission'
Aviation Week and Space Technology, 22 October 1990, p114-115, 'YF-23 Prototype Underges Flutter Tests, May Finish Flight Evaluations Next Month' and 'YF-23's VMS Integrates Most Aircraft Systems For Improved Flight Controls Operation'
Aviation Week and Space Technology, 3 December 1990, p29, 'Lockheed ATF Team Fires First Missile; Demonstrates Pitch Axis Thrust Vectoring'
Aviation Week and Space Technology, 17 December 1990, p47-49, 'YF-23 Team Sees Saving in Switching From Distributed to Integrated Processor'
Aviation Week and Space Technology, 29 April 1991, 20-21, 'Risk, Cost Sway Airframe, Engine Choices for ATF'
Aviation Week and Space Technology, 'ATF Prototypes Burn One-Third Less Fuel in Supercruise', and 'First YF-23 Completes Dem/Val, Demonstrates 'Surge' Capability'
Flight International, 21-27 November 1990, p26-29, 'Advancing The ATF'
Flight International, 12-18 December 1990, p25, 'USAF Stamps "Secret" on YF-23 Speed'
Flight International, 16-22 Jan 1991, 'Transpiration Lamilloy, Allison'
Flight International, 1-7 May 1991, p6
Flight International, 5-11 June 1991, p16, 'NASA could rescue redundant YF-23s'
Interavia Aerospace Review, June 1991, 57-61, 'YF-22 Faces Budget Battle'
Koku Fan, September 1990, p66-74
Popular Science, April 1991, p62-67, 'Fast, Agile, Stealthy Supercruisers'
World Air Power Journal, Vol 6, Summer 1991, 'Lockheed F-22: Stealth with Agility', by Bill Sweetman
World Air Power Journal, Vol 7, Autumn/Winter 1991, p32-41, 'Northrop/McDonnell Douglas YF-23: The Fighter They Didn't Want', by Bill Sweetman
World Air Power Journal, Vol 38, Autumn/Fall 1999, pp 54-87, 'Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor', by Bill Sweetman
Papers and Presentations
AIAA 86-2651 Oct 1986, 'The Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Aircraft Design', by Richard J. Busch Jr, Merle Jager, & Brad Berman
AIAA 91-1627 June 1991, 'Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Design of the Northrop/McDonnell Douglas YF-23 ATF Prototype', by Richard J Busch Jr
AIAA 92-1039 3-6 February 1992, 'Flight Test of the YF-23A Advanced Tactical Fighter', by Paul Metz, Aerospace Design Conference, Irvine CA
AIAA 92-1076 3-6 February 1992, 'The ATF YF-23 Vehicle Management System', by Tom Hayre & Fred Meyn, Aerospace Design Conference, Irvine CA
AIAA 92-4188 August 1992, 'Evolution of the F-22 Advanced Tactical Fighter', by Sherman A Mullin, 1992 Wright Brothers Lecture
AIAA 93-1162 February 1993, 'YF-23 Leading Edge Flap and Weapons Bay Door Hydromechanical Drive Systems', by WC Saino & BA Krandel
AIAA 21 March 2000, 'Why Would Anyone Not Pick the YF-23?' AIAA Atlanta Presentation by Mr Tom Wetherall, Crowne Plaza Hotel
AIAA 'What's Up' Vol 25 No 6 May 2000, Tom Wetherall P-3 Program Mgr Lockheed, AIAA Presentation
NASA Dryden Flight Research Center FS-1994-11-032-DFRC Nov 1994
NBF 90-59 Northrop ATF Brochure
NBF 91-1 F-23 Advanced Tactical Fighter and Navy Advanced Tactical Fighter, Northrop EMD Proposal, January 1991
Northrop Drawing DP231-3741-GA, F-23A FSD P&W F119 engined version
NTM 1F-23(Y)A-1 Utility Flight Manual, Northrop Corporation, Aircraft Division, June 1990
National USAF Museum
Western Museum of Flight
Last updated April 2014.
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